Glossary of terms used on NANO MagazineThere are 130 entries in this glossary.
A prefix meaning one billionth (1/1 000 000 000).
- Nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS)
Devices and machines, an extension of present-day micro machines and micro actuators into the nano domain. Protein motors, capable of linear or rotary motion. DNA and active devices such as nanowires, switches, motors and tweezers.
Nanotechnology integrated into the biology realm, in particular into molecular biology and cell biology. At the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology, nanobiotechnologists carry out research on the phenomena of self-assembly or self-organisation of biomolecules such as cell membranes or virus particles, in order to adapt these principles to the technical production of nanostructures.
Polymer/inorganic nanocomposites are composed of two or more physically distinct components (e.g. metals, ceramics, polymers and biological materials) with one or more average dimensions smaller than 100nm. From the structural point of view, the role of inorganic filler, usually as particles or fibres, is to provide intrinsic strength and stiffness while the polymer matrix can adhere to and bind the inorganic component so that forces applied to the composite are transmitted evenly to the filler. The material’s properties, e.g. hardness, transparency, porosity are altered.
Using ‘top down’ techniques for the manufacture of materials with dimensions less than 100 nm, involving lithographic techniques beyond the optical domain using electron beam and X-ray lithography. Advanced manufacturing processes and instrumentation for manipulation at the nanoscale, including scanning probe techniques, focused ion beam technology and nanomanipulators.
Hollow and solid carbon fibres with lengths on the order of a few microns and widths varying from tens of nanometres to around 200nm.
Nanofiltration is a pressure-driven membrane process that can separate molecules in the 200-1000 Dalton range. It can be used either to allow valuable molecules to permeate through the membrane (retaining impurities or unwanted materials) or to retain valuable materials (product, catalyst, etc.) whilst allowing the other components of the fluid to permeate through the membrane.
Controlling nanoscale amounts of fluids.
Nanolithography is the art and science of etching, writing, or printing at the microscopic level, where the dimensions of characters are on the order of nanometres. This includes various methods of modifying semiconductor chips at the atomic level for the purpose of fabricating integrated circuits (ICs). Instruments used in nanolithography include the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). Both allow surface viewing in fine detail without necessarily modifying it. Either the STM or the AFM can be used to etch, write, or print on a surface in single-atom dimensions.
The process of manipulating items at an atomic or molecular scale in order to produce precise structures.
One billionth of a metre / 10-9m, / a millionth of a millimetre.
Precise measurement below 100nm and development of measurement techniques.
Nanophotonics is the nano-engineering of light-matter interactions so that new phenomena of physics can be utilized to develop novel optoelectronics devices which can be well beyond the capability of the conventional photonics and electronics.
Nanoscopic pores found in purpose-built filters, sensors, or diffraction gratings.