Glossary of terms used on NANO MagazineThere are 130 entries in this glossary.
Chemically assisted ion beam etching.
- Carbon black
Carbon black is a powdered form of elemental carbon. The primary use of carbon black is in rubber products, mainly tyres and other automotive products, but also in many other rubber products such as hoses, gaskets and coated fabrics. Much smaller amounts of carbon black are used in inks and paints, plastics and in the manufacture of dry-cell batteries.
Chemically amplified resists.
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy, but which is left unchanged by the reaction. A catalyst works by providing a convenient surface for the reaction to occur. The reacting particles gather on the catalyst surface and either collide more frequently with each other or more of the collisions result in a reaction between particles because the catalyst can lower the activation energy for the reaction
The latest molecular switches are created using unique molecules, called catenanes, which consist of two tiny mechanically interlocked rings, each ring composed of atoms linked in a circle. Catenanes are an improvement over rotaxane molecules. Rotaxanes are in a solution state and are much more incoherent.
An ion consists of one or more atoms and carries a unit charge of electricity. Those that are positively electrified (hydrogen and the metals) are called cations (cf. anion).
A small structural unit, surrounded by a membrane, making up living things.
- Chemical vapour deposition (CVD)
A technique used to deposit coatings, where chemicals are first vaporized, and then applied using an inert carrier gas such as nitrogen.
The physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one of which is stationary while the other moves in a definite direction. Chromatography is a widely used for the separation, identification, and determination of the chemical components in complex mixtures.
Combinations of metals, ceramics, polymers, and biological materials that allow multi-functional behaviour. One common practice is reinforcing polymers or ceramics with ceramic fibres to increase strength while retaining light weight and avoiding the brittleness of the monolithic ceramic. Materials used in the body often combine biological and structural functions (e.g., the encapsulation of drugs).
Natural polysaccharide deriving from chitin, chitosan is cationic in acidic media